40m Vertical Loading Coil

With that said, go look up the cost of one that is being sold in the magazines and on the web. In most ground-mounted 160, 80, 60 or 40 meter mono-band vertical antenna installations with very good radial systems and high efficiency, feedpoint. Using twinlead for the loading coil, strip and short the wires and terminate in a solder lug at the bottom of the coil. com Subject: " A 40m band shortened vertical " 「40mバンド短縮垂直アンテナ」 40mVertical I have designed and homebrewed a 40m band shortened vertical of which overall length is about 2m32cm (91 1/2 inches) using a bloom handle purchased at a dollar store. It's an 1/8 wave vertical on 160 meters also. That is why I choose to publish my paper, "Super" Deluxe BP settings with the coil placed at midpoint. The top of the coil will be finished later. Near the center of the vertical radiator B. 00 Ex Tax: £45. 77 - Capacitance Loaded Vertical Antenna for 160m. • a small and easily built slightly off-centre* loading coil brings the vertical wire to resonance on 40, 20 and 15m and remains in place on all bands. It will be approxiamately 10 metres long end to end. Likewise, for the top hat loading, each of the radials may replaced with four 100ohms inductive reactance load coils on the 40m band, the 50ohm coax then connected to this point. It arrived within two days of ordering. If you want a 40M/20M/6M/2M/440MHz antenna, screw the 40M coil on the top of the main mast and the optional 20M coil to the side and you have a 5-band antenna. The rotary switch will connect the coax socket from your rig to the bannana socket you plug the end of this wire into. Last edited by ke0ipr. The tubing then slides into a bracket designed to hold a flag. a quarter-wave 40m vertical, so it needs a good earth. I decided to add a loading coil to operate it on 40M, and it also worked fine, albeit not so wide. There are four optional HF coils available: HVC7 (40m), HVC14 (20m), HVC18 (17m), and HVC21 (15m). If the coil were totally removed it would make a respectible 40M short vertical. Built in powered hoist. Please Note: Coils are not provided with coil clips. 80m, 40m, 20m, 15m, 10m and 6m (3. Vertical Base Replacement Coil. Fresno, CA 93722 Tel: (559) 432-8873 Fax: (559) 432-3059 Web: www. The result is a lightweight inductor with great power handling and increased Q to near 1000 resulting in reduced losses. A standard dipole antenna is resonant if constructed with a length of one-half wavelength. Works very nicely for such a simple setup. Truly a Diversified and Modifiable Base Station Vertical, that can also be tuned to the Marine Band 28. One machine accomplishes both upending and loading. The mast tubing came in the longer box. W1DYJ ~ Larry Banks DXCC WAS VUCC WAC 40M Vertical October 2014 A 40M l/4 Vertical with Elevated Radials Larry Banks, W1DYJ First licensed: 1962 (KN1VFX) W1DYJ since 1966 - Amateur Extra 10 Matthews Way Harpswell ME. Post #1100. Please wash your hands and practise social distancing. UPDATE: Added two variations on the coil for someone who wants to use it for a screwdriver antenna. Every 10 turns or so, there is a tap that comes out from the coil, giving you something to attach the transmitter signal to. To be short, my vertical was KO on 40m after a strong wind blowing here (beg of November). Extra loading inductance is added in series with the existing resonating coils to bring the resonance down to Top Band, and some components are removed. 8 meters away from the wall. However, tapping points must be formed at every other turn near one end of the coil, making the winding process a little more complicated. This would include dielectrics on or near the inductor, since the presence of dielectrics would increase undesirable capacitance. o /4 ≈130' and many times that height is not possible. Antenna Loading Coil Calculation The calculation method is taken from a BASIC program by OA4/KA2OIG who is hereby acknowledged. A loading coil for 80m As the days grow shorter with the approach of winter and activity shifts towards longer wavelengths, I took stock of my log and noticed that while I have racked up a reasonable number of contacts on 15, 20 and 40 meters, 80 meters lags far behind. Low Band DX Antennas •Lets go from easiest to hardest antennas to put up on the low bands •SteppIR CrankIR -no radials •Shortened vertical dipole (using loading coils and "T ar hats") -no radials •On 40M and 30M a dipole up 50' or more is a good antenna •Single vertical using an UNUN or current choke and radials. part of it's a loading coil, and part is a matching device. 1500w max on 40/30m bands when using SmallIR coil. 40m : Rr = 34. The further out on the leg the coil goes, you a higher radiation resistance (good), but requires a larger coil and higher resistive loss (bad). The coil tunes the 40m match. (Enter "0" for a base loading coil. 1 ohm series resistance. A Linear Loaded Vertical Antenna ©1998. Loading Coils for 160-Meter Antennas, Charles Michaels, W7XC, QST magazine, April, 1990. Home Antenna. Homebrew vertical dipole I've been looking around for good ideas for a portable HF antenna and finally settled on Robert Johns' (W3JIP) plan from a QST article (Aug 88). Stock availability and shipping volume can delay shipping. Shortened, loaded dipole. The loading coils are contained in an IP66 rated enclosure which prevents environmental conditions from affecting the performance of the loading coils. It has a plain interior because I believe that the center should contain supporting structure such as a piece of ABS plumbing pipe, or a wooden dowel epoxied in place. The method appears to be based on an equation in J. A detailed look at how one can relatively optimize the Q of a loading coil. I cut a hole in the bottom of the trash container to fit over the toilet brush and mounted it upside down on the brush stand. A short length of 20mm OD PVC electrical conduit was used for the coil former. The Center-Loaded Off-Center-Fed Dipole (CL-OCFD) was invented and first described by yours truly, Serge Y. Loading coil calculated inductance µH The calculation refers to either a loaded 1/4 wave (typically a vertical, in which case flip the picture below through 90 o ) or a loaded dipole, in which case the dimensions refer refer to one arm and two coils will be required. I chose 58' for Mid 80 Meter Operation. 2dB better. End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. optimal coil position chart shown at right. Without a doubt Tier-Rack makes heavy duty coil storage rack. Post #10 How To Build A QRP Dummy Load. 80M Base loading coil option 06021 $325 Attaches to the Base of the Biggir to add 60 and 80M Bands. A good, simple, inexpensive antenna suitable for portable and emergency operations. Build Your Own Coils Phil Salas - AD5X Introduction I really enjoy experimenting with different ways of making portable and mobile antennas. For the latest Amateur Radio news and information, please visit these websites:. When the loading coil is installed at the bottom of the vertical radiator, we call it a "base loaded" antenna. The final design comprises: a vertical wire radiator 8. nov 13, 2014 - 43 foot multiband vertical high q add on 80m loading coil--new | zerofive-antennas Stay safe and healthy. 5, 7/14/21/28-29 and 50mhz) six-band vertical antenna (4 pages) Antenna Diamond Antenna CR8900A Instruction Sheet 10m/6m/2m/70cm fm mobile antenna optimized for trunk lid mounting (2 pages). An antenna loading coil is an inductor placed in series with an antenna element in order to lower the antenna's resonant frequency. Post #1100. It’s not hard to tap the loading coil to allow it to be used on both bands. The garden here at PZT Towers is 50ftx20ft so a full-length flat-top dipole/doublet to get me onto 7MHz was out of the question…. It is 18 feet tall and has a loading coil at the base. Post #1096. I have been able to tune it on 20, 30 and 40m by moving alligator clip around at the coil. With that said, go look up the cost of one that is being sold in the magazines and on the web. Theoretical Results from Perfect Antenna and Ground Plane 80 M taps have 200 KHz BW set at 3. Old XYL's Tales. The minimum installation height of a horizontal dipole is often stated as about 0. The radials will be automatically selected for example. My 40 meter vertical cost me $13. efficient vertical antenna requiring no radials and a 21° take-off angle. The tubing then slides into a bracket designed to hold a flag. I cut a hole in the bottom of the trash container to fit over the toilet brush and mounted it upside down on the brush stand. Enter a length between 1 and 250 feet. The worst mistake I made was thinking matching coils were an exact science when the exact opposite is true - matching coils can be big or small, air coil or iron powder (but never ferrite) core, horizontal, vertical, wound around a toroid or any combination of these. • Self Loading - Self storing load arm. loading coil losses and loading coil inductivity limiting the bandwidth of the. 40m Dipole on 15m. The garden here at PZT Towers is 50ftx20ft so a full-length flat-top dipole/doublet to get me onto 7MHz was out of the question…. 40 Meter K5WZ Horse Fence Dipole Antenna / 6m-40m. 1500w max on 40/30m bands when using SmallIR coil. 300 Watts The Antenna is a full wave loop designed to operate on 40m (7MHz), 15m (21MHz) and 10m (28MHz) witho. ½λ vertical with a loading coil? Would it have the same performance? The antenna in this article, at only 2/3 the height of a full ½λ vertical does just that. In fact, this author is willing to assert that: All 75m mobile air-core loading coils exhibit transmission line characteristics which fall outside the boundary conditions presumed by the lumped inductor model. You will be able to tune ('match') your previous monobander up on whatever frequency you like, and transmit to your heart's content. The result is a lightweight inductor with great power handling and a Q near 1000. A lumped loading coil may be a short, fat, single-layer solenoid. At a voltage node. Because of the "shortening" effect of the series capacitor, the upper coil. 4:06: Error, it was printed in PLA, not ABS. Register to edit. 72 - Clothesline Antenna. The fibre masts are just tall enough to hold a 5/8 vertical for 20m, the idea of building a 5/8 was born. 2MHz, this is not a characteristic that most 'short' dipoles provide. Ham Radio and Amateur Radio online equipment sales. • Measuring Efficiency of a Loop or Vertical Antenna the loading coil inductance and placement High-power LMR-400 40m 16. We had 1 of this item in stock at the time of the last update. motor to adjust the length of the antenna and the tap on the loading coil to adjust it's resonate frequency. The famous formula Efficiency = 100 * Rr /(Rr+Rp), I finally got with my original HF2V. Product Description. The loading coil is wound with 12 gauge bare copper on a couple of PVC 2 inch couplings joined together. The Nagoya UT-72 is a dual-band magnet mount antenna with over 4 dB of gain. 4m long with a loading coil 0. AM Loop Antennas Vertical Antenna Loading Coils-- see LOADCOIL * Design short vertical antenna and loading coil. The loading coil for 137KHz has a diameter 40cm, with 70 turns,coil lenght 20cm and about 100m wire 1,5mm2. When installing a loading coil of substantial inductance in an electrically short antenna, sheetmetal and dielectrics should be kept away from the coil and areas of antenna above the loading coil. A wide variety of coil loading car options are available to you, There are 584 suppliers who sells coil loading car on Alibaba. Versions 4 and 5 utilized two loading coils. On 20m and above it has made some pretty reasonable contacts. 65' 1" Off-Center Fed Dipole long leg: 43' 5" + short leg: 21' 8" made from an Evans W1JC shortwave antenna (sim to Princeton Sky Wire) Spi-Ro 4:1 balun resonant on 40m (fundamental) plus 20m, 10m, and 6m (harmonics). 40 meter (40M) Half-Wave Amateur Ham Radio Dipole Antenna. On 40m the loading coil acts as a choke and isolates the extension wire. Others bands (160/80/30m) were OK after a slight re-tuning in the base matching box, and 30m using 40m switch position from the shack was still OK : the relays were not responsble for this. The antenna is driven either at one of the radiator wires, or more often at one end of the top-load, by bringing the wires of the top-load diagonally down to the transmitter. Had a little time to do some research on shortened 40m yagis. Just slide the metal collar up or down on the custom loading coil to fine tune everywhere! You must add a 42" whip, and it will resonate from 40m-10m, or with a smaller whip it can tune from 20m-4m. Vertical Antennas - Dirty Little Secrets, Ground/Radial Systems - Click On Tech Notes Vertical Antenna Design -- Trap and Loading Coil Losses With Vertical Antennas By W0DN The Effects of VSWR on Transmitted Power --By James G. 40 meter quarter wave vertical with loading coil This afternoon, I've been playing with an 8 meter fishing pole in the garden, clamped to a 3 meter aluminium pole with 2 x 10 meter elevated radials sloping from the feedpoint at 3 meters to fence height. 1wl, area under the curve of current distribution must be as large as possible, which directly determines efficiency of radiation. axle options. to coax by using loading coils 75m / 40m 144 ft 10 in 89 ft 6 in 30m / 17m 54 ft 9 in 36 ft 2 in 15m / 10m 38 ft 8 in 53 ft 4 in. 575" dia x 1. This means that it has to be retuned more frequently. Also, a hairpin matching coil is placed across the. It is a full-sized dipole on 20m, a linear loaded dipole on 40m and an inductively loaded dipole on 80m, creating an antenna that is resonant on all three bands, does not require a tuner and is small enough to fit into. With this in mind the shorted twinlead coil in the SLV is used primarily for mechanical reasons to add strength to the solder joint between the wire and solder lug. Contrary to numerous assertions and publications, the loading coil is obviously NOT acting as a lumped inductor at that frequency. DIY Shortened Vertical Antenna Introduction In the last few months, I got into antennas a little bit deeper. It must be at least this large in diameter (>12 in. I have constructed a center loaded 20 foot vertical using a 20 foot collapsible fishing pole as the mast. From the matching coil a wire winds its way up the PVC mast (about 36" long) to a tap lead which clips onto the appropriate spot on the loading coil for the band of interest. 5 metres from the. Justin G0KSC has combined the use of high-efficient, wide-spaced coils and capacity loading to produce a 12m wide 40M rotating dipole with a radiating efficiency of just over 89% along with all-band coverage without the need for an ATU. 80 and 40m with fair results on the upper bands. When installing a loading coil of substantial inductance in an electrically short antenna, sheetmetal and dielectrics should be kept away from the coil and areas of antenna above the loading coil. To operate on 40m the BW Vertical utilizes both coils for loading the antenna. The antenna is driven either at one of the radiator wires, or more often at one end of the top-load, by bringing the wires of the top-load diagonally down to the transmitter. The antenna is strong enough to withstand almost any impact. As low as possible on the vertical radiator C. Top Loading Coil Assembly 1. 4m long with a loading coil 0. This online calculator tells you how. Manufactured from extremely strong construction grade 6082-T6 Aluminium stock with a heavy duty boom and a wide-spaced High-Q loading coil. Loading Coil for 7MHz M45007 Mast bracket M45019 Radial nut Spring washer M6 M45024 Spring washer M6 M45024 V-volt set M45020 80m and 40m Dual-band Vertical Antenna CP8040 ・Parts Description Operation Instructions (Fig-1) ・Description ①The CP8040 is a dual-band vertical antenna for HF low band. The DS1 Antenna is a small, portable, vertical antenna system for 40m thru 10m. Old XYL's Tales. Several vertical radiator wires hang down from the top-load, each attached to its own ground through a loading coil. The coax feeder has to be routed as far away from the lower part of the antenna as possible. 70 cnts) pair of Tx/Rx modules. While 10m of wire will provide low impedance to the tuner, I’m planning on having a 10 – 20 uH loading coil in the center (like mobile whips do) so that the physical length will be around 14m. Many factors affects a coil's Q. via K7MEM Short Dipole Calculator. This antenna is essentially a quarter-wave 40m vertical, so it needs a good earth and once its got that, you can throw away the ATU and works some real DX, on 40, that is. The 28 foot vertical element, and the matching and loading coil, are made with insulated 12 AWG solid wire used for electric utility service. The reactance of the loading coil is 5584 Ω (at 475 kHz). Rotating Dipole 40m-6m. 5, 7/14/21/28-29 and 50mhz) six-band vertical antenna (4 pages) Antenna Diamond Antenna CR8900A Instruction Sheet 10m/6m/2m/70cm fm mobile antenna optimized for trunk lid mounting (2 pages). The coil form is a one foot length of 2. In the end, it was back to 40 to get those contacts. Many factors affects a coil's Q. His confirmed report states: “Your signal report 55 with fading was always readable. As it is the antenna has -5. Loading coils at the base or autotuners are the worst. Using Bottom Loading • Bottom loading at the base works, but burns some power • Using bigger wire helps (#10 good) • In the recent Stew Perry, N6NUL worked JA with 100 watts using an inverted L only about 35 ft tall designed for 80M, adding just enough coil at the base that his K2 auto tuner could load it! (It helps that he's near. , at the feedpoint) requires the smallest amount of inductance. This means you have to choose which part of the 80m band you want to use and the "spokes" of the capacity hat have to be trimmed to adjust the resonance to the required frequency. When installing a loading coil of substantial inductance in an electrically short antenna, sheetmetal and dielectrics should be kept away from the coil and areas of antenna above the loading coil. Changing the band just by changing the alligator clip is a very welcome option. For multi-band operation select a different tap position or bypass the loading coil and use a QRP tuner, a variable L or Z match at the antenna base. My 40 meter vertical cost me $13. YOU choose which coils to attach, in any combination. 4m long with a loading coil 0. 2013/11/02 日本語は下にあります。 [email protected] The result is a lightweight inductor with great power handling and increased Q to near 1000 resulting in reduced losses. 4 MHZ, series cap for 80m operation, loading coil for 160m 80m Z11, 20 ohms ideal gnd, 160m Z11, 5 ohms ideal gnd. Careful design and extensive testing has allowed optimisation so that the antenna also operates most effectively on 6m and also 17m with no impact on the 40m operation. io Subject: [steppir] Installed Steppir BigIR Vertical with 80m loading coil Good morning everyone, finally able to install my BigIR with 80m coil. When the loading coil is installed at the bottom of the vertical radiator, we call it a "base loaded" antenna. As close to the transmitter as possible D. 4 microhenries. 00 Add to cart; Connector Junction Box $ 204. 4m long with a loading coil 0. Make an Offer. This antenna does not need an ATU: Matching for HF bands between 20m and 10m is provided by patching leads on the built in loading coil. This antenna is made for the Ham operator that ís looking for a compact dipole antenna to work on 40M. One Killowatt rated components guarantee electrical safety. The lightweight loading coil was wound on a 52mm diam Black Pepper Corn Spice Tub. • Measuring Efficiency of a Loop or Vertical Antenna • Evaluation of My Loop -Comparison to Verticals the loading coil inductance and placement the length of the antenna the ground resistance High-power LMR-400 40m 16. The loading coil at the top of the antenna is a piece of Close-up view of the matching coil. A coil loaded 40 meter element design was computer optimized for gain and bandwidth. Distance from antenna base to the center of the coil in feet. It will be approxiamately 10 metres long end to end. The world's largest vaccine maker is mass-producing a COVID-19 vaccine developed by the University of Oxford without knowing whether it works. The Cleito Pro has a vertical coil structure made of kanthal round wire, wicked with organic cotton, and has three wicking. Best possible improvement for a 2/3-height loading coil relative to base loading is typically 3 dB. While I was at it, I extended the coil for operation on 80M as well. His confirmed report: “ Klaus, for the record, there. From: [email protected] The pursuit of the best antenna for my location took me to interesting places. JK401 Rotatable Dipole for 40M. Coil Cradle. Had a little time to do some research on shortened 40m yagis. 2013/11/02 日本語は下にあります。 [email protected] A whip antenna is an antenna consisting of a straight flexible wire or rod. There's a hidden factor at work here too. 2 Sevick, "The W 2 FM 1 20-Meter Vertical Beam," QST, June, 1972. The loading coils of a short dipole must therefore be positioned away from the ends but still be closer to the ends than to the center feed point. Moreover, it is very tall (almost 10m), thus quite impossible to make it perfectly vertical all the way up without proper guying. The big weakness of the antenna is the way it mounts onto the…. Therefore, as you move the coil toward the end, there is a balancing of competing efficiencies. Loading Coil The 110µH loading coil is used on the version for 80m. 2 Inductor location with top-loading Due to windage considerations mobile verticals seldom have much capacitive top-loading but fixed station antennas have (or should have!) as much top-loading as practical. using quality coil with large Q- factor In order to get more efficient vertical antenna for 80M band with mechanical height about 0. The 28 foot vertical element, and the matching and loading coil, are made with insulated 12 AWG solid wire used for electric utility service. TUNING THE WHIP. spacing along the length, beginning at 1 in. Basically, the loading coil is operating as a trap. It worked perfectly. Use our coil as a replacement coil for the Hy-Gain or other base vertical antennas using a tapped coil. 5 Ohms with a loading coil = 4. As I stated earlier in this article, the normal convention for designing a short vertical is to use a loading coil (or lumped constant) at the base or in the middle of the antenna radiator. Because it was still working on 80/160, the serial coil at 10m. The 40 meter elements were trimmed for resonance at 7. 00 Select options; 40/30 Dipole Retrofit for 3 Element 20-6M Yagi $ 732. The top of the coil directly bonds to the upper vertical section with a jumper wire (hidden) on the far side of the plastic insulator. HV7A Mobile Antenna System General Information HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. I spent a morning making the coils according to the design (40 turns on a 1. A standard dipole antenna is resonant if constructed with a length of one-half wavelength. An overview of a coil form I made recently with my 3D printer, pushing the limits of the size of things I can print with the monoprice 3D printer. Which ever one is resonant at the frequency you're operating at will be the one that is used by default. The final design comprises: a vertical wire radiator 8. The Diamond RHM8B is a nice little antenna for backpacking. Coil Inductance Calculator. 2dB better. AM Loop Antennas Vertical Antenna Loading Coils-- see LOADCOIL * Design short vertical antenna and loading coil. A detailed look at how one can relatively optimize the Q of a loading coil. This is the most time consuming step. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. (Received October 21, 1964; revised December 12, 1964) In this paper, a method is presented by which the distribution of current on some structurally simple coil or multi turn loop antennas may be obtained. Enter a length between 1 and 250 feet. Product Code - 40M1TORHEAVY. If we raise the antenna base at a height of 1/2l or so as states Bencher, usually four or six 1/4l radials only provide about the same efficiency as dozen or even an hundred 1/2l radials running underground. 2m above ground. This kind of cold roll forming machine is widely used for making various metal wall panels and roof panels for steel constructions, steel structure projects and containment systems etc. Some installations may require a nylon fish line to relieve stress on vehicle. It should measure out to be about 50uh. and can handle widths from 12″ to 84″. The DELTA C-140 is a rugged 40m rotating dipole which is just 39' (12m) wide - SERIOUS HD!! The Delta C-140 has a number of unique benefits. Nice and simple. Base loading requires the smallest amount of inductance to achieve resonance. It is a little more awkward to do so, but, once one figures out how to do it it is a breeze. OK, so let's get back to my linear loaded vertical for 40 and 80 metres. Field Antenna for 40m. Super wide bandwidth means more time operating ,and less time stuck on a frequency your trap vertical is tuned for. Because it collapses to less than four feet in length, it's the ideal choice for all-band coverage from your RV,. 3 uH loading coil, 54% from feedpoint (21 turns on Amidon T200-2) to fit 40/15m dipole in roofspace (total span 15m) Detail of end-isolator with wires folded back and twisted for fine tuning the dipoles for the lower frequencies Detail of end-isolator with clamp for fine tuning the dipoles for the higher frequencies. So why not always use center-loading? This is primarily driven by coil losses, hence, efficiency of the antenna. From: [email protected] Post #1106 Building a dipole for 40 and 20 meters. A loading coil for 80m As the days grow shorter with the approach of winter and activity shifts towards longer wavelengths, I took stock of my log and noticed that while I have racked up a reasonable number of contacts on 15, 20 and 40 meters, 80 meters lags far behind. 40m employs a sloping dipole array. I am looking at building a half size rotatable 40M dipole. My 40 meter vertical cost me $13. At a voltage node. io [mailto:[email protected] I have been able to tune it on 20, 30 and 40m by moving alligator clip around at the coil. The top coil consists of approximately seventeen turns of the same wire. The Basic Design. An overview of a coil form I made recently with my 3D printer, pushing the limits of the size of things I can print with the monoprice 3D printer. 4m long with a loading coil 0. Old XYL's Tales. 433 MHz Coil Loaded Antenna: In my 433 MHz projects I have been using a cheap (0. 07mm stranded wire with an OD of 1mm. Extra loading inductance is added in series with the existing resonating coils to bring the resonance down to Top Band, and some components are removed. The actual reading is 1. 3 φ30 M42003 Pipe No. Loading coils at the base or autotuners are the worst. You can also roof mount this antenna with the optional AV-14RMQ roof mounting kit. 065", 12 gauge is. Distance from antenna base to the center of the coil in feet. Total height of antenna in feet. HV7A Mobile Antenna System General Information HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. 2 mH : Antenna Switch: Be careful: High Voltage! I used this antenna switch to switch between longwave and 160/80/40m, as I used the same antenna for all those bands. NAGOYA UT-72. The purpose of the loading coil at the base of the 3/4 λ Collinear monopole is to improve the VSWR. vertical antenna loading coil vs toroid: [email protected] For example: If you want a 10M/6M/2M/440MHz quad-band antenna, then only add the 10M coil to the top of the main mast. With 102" whip, it will resonate from 80m-12m! Great for EMCOM, Mobile, or QRP. 00 Add to cart; Connector Junction Box $ 204. 76 - Half Rhombic Unidirectional Vertical for 20m to 6m. The coil is mounted on a 3/4″ PVC pipe which slips into a 6″ length of aluminum tubing. Vertical Antennas, William Orr, W6SAI and Stuart Cowan, W2LX. Building a portable trapped 20/40m 1/4 wave vertical. Because of the "shortening" effect of the series capacitor, the upper coil. On 80m the trap is mostly a resistor, or better a lengthening (or loading) coil so that you can shorten arm 2 until the SWR of the antenna becomes acceptable for 80m. The coils have a ID of 4" inches. Great for Ham Bands and outstanding for image-free shortwave broadcast! Rugged Construction: All aluminum, stainless steel construction ensures years of excellent performance. Carl KM1H----- Original Message -----From: "Bill and Liz McHugh" To: Sent: Saturday, April 23, 2011 8:02 AM. You will be able to tune (‘match’) your previous monobander up on whatever frequency you like, and transmit to your heart’s content. As close to the transmitter as possible D. The antenna is tuned for each band (10m to 20m) by changing the length of the T-bar elements. End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. The third version, again used the Edison bulb with a multi-tap coil for multiband operation. An angle of 45° ist adequate. We could more the coil higher up (higher than center), but increasing Q losses soon offset the increase in radiation resistance. Distance from antenna base to the center of the coil in feet. The bending load on something this long will be considerable, so better interior support. The coil’s Inductance is 118uH and requires 61 turns of close wound 0. Sirio GPA 40-70 Mhz 6 Meter ground plane base antenna - 1000 Watts, 2. Loading coil calculated inductance µH The calculation refers to either a loaded 1/4 wave (typically a vertical, in which case flip the picture below through 90 o ) or a loaded dipole, in which case the dimensions refer refer to one arm and two coils will be required. The loading coils of a short dipole must therefore be positioned away from the ends but still be closer to the ends than to the center feed point. , at the feedpoint) requires the smallest amount of inductance. Make an Offer. 78 - Fan Dipole Antenna for 80m to 6m. 40m/30m coverage for SmallIR Vertical. With the vertical energised with only 1. Super wide bandwidth means more time operating ,and less time stuck on a frequency your trap vertical is tuned for. Constructing a dipole for 160 meters with a length of approximately 254 feet and a height of 50 feet or higher will produce a low angle of radiation. The antenna is driven either at one of the radiator wires, or more often at one end of the top-load, by bringing the wires of the top-load diagonally down to the transmitter. Interior of the matching unit. Steppir Verticals are the only true ¼ wave continuous coverage antennas available for the HF bands. Coils are used in a variety of different methods to match, tune, and resonate circuits. net Abstract A coaxial-cable trap dipole antenna installed in the attic provides a surprisingly effective solution to HF operation on the 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 80 meter amateur bands at a QTH with restrictive covenants that prohibit outside antennas. 80m and 40m Dual-band Vertical Antenna KV2 ・Parts Description Loading Coil for 7MHz M42007 Pipe No. Interwinding capacitance is a big problem with such a coil too, so I wouldn't use thick insulation, but I wouldn't necessarily shy away from using thick enameled wire if I had it. End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. The dimensions of the coil I used are 4 inches of BW coil stock #3026, or 4 inches of 8 turns per inch on a 2 inch diameter form. One more thought is that I’ll add a 110uH coil to the end of the wire then about 2m more of wire, the idea that it can trap 40m and then act as a loading coil on 80m. Therefore, as you move the coil toward the end, there is a balancing of competing efficiencies. 40m: I decided to keep the base-load mechanism. The coax feedline runs up the center of the bottom antenna element and is shielded by it. With that said, go look up the cost of one that is being sold in the magazines and on the web. My Favorite Loop. As close to the transmitter as possible D. In my experience, it is always the coil former which causes the most problems. To get to 110µF I used 76 turns. His confirmed report states: “Your signal report 55 with fading was always readable. (22 mm) form Number of turns Coil length. 8m above its feed point. long, about the size of a 40m dipole. In either the vertical (one coil) or dipole (2 coils) configuration it is necessary to use a balun with significant choking impedance to prevent RF feedback. I used a 1 quart paint can that measure about 4 1/4 inch or so round, Close winding the 1/4 tubing around the paint can with 18 turns made up the 80 meter coil. 0:1 bandwidth on 80M without tuning the antenna) High Q 4. 4415: 2112 116th Ave NE Suite 1-5 : [email protected] , at the feedpoint) requires the smallest amount of inductance. The tuner automatically takes care of the bandwidth situation. Homebrew vertical dipole I've been looking around for good ideas for a portable HF antenna and finally settled on Robert Johns' (W3JIP) plan from a QST article (Aug 88). A loading coil located at the feedpoint of the radiating element [ = base loaded, where the current is the highest] creates a significant part of the (lower) overall radiation of such a configuration. Tuner's Effect at the Antenna. for which I was hoping. We could more the coil higher up (higher than center), but increasing Q losses soon offset the increase in radiation resistance. End loading the most efficient form of loading is used for 80m. A technique such as Petlowany loading is also a possibility, see my washing line antenna. Three coil assemblies were built before I was happy I was as close as I could get to a good match on. I use an arrangment of double bananna plugs and jacks to facilitate band switching by patching the coil in and out of the feed. I am thinking of a 2 element design with a 18' - 24' boom length. A standard dipole antenna is resonant if constructed with a length of one-half wavelength. The coils were wound with fine stranded insulated wire of about 2mm total thickness (insulation included). from one end. The second version used two regular lightbulbs with shorter filaments. Antenna Currents. Have you tried the short dipole on 20m? I live in an apartment at 16th floor (concrete with reinforce steel bar buidling) and have problems with proper RF ground and might have space to put out a dipole not exceeding 9m (end-to-end) and about 0. My first few SOTA activations used a 40 meter dipole slung from branches at 5 or 6 meters. 5 meters to do experiments with vertical antennas. While I was at it, I extended the coil for operation on 80M as well. The capacitance elements can cause injury and or severe RF burns. Coil Cars Model Maximum Capacity Lift Number Pounds Inches Coil Car LC30 30,000 18 Coil Car LC60 60,000 18 Coil Lift LL30 30,000 18 Coil Lift LL60 60,000 18 Upending Car UCN10 10,000 18 Upending Car UCN30 30,000 18 Model LC30. Both the EHU and the 80m coil just came back from Steppir from being fully checked out. Post #1098, Homebrew groundplane antenna for 50 MHz. 40m employs a sloping dipole array. 5, 7/14/21/28-29 and 50mhz) six-band vertical antenna (4 pages) Antenna Diamond Antenna CR8900A Instruction Sheet 10m/6m/2m/70cm fm mobile antenna optimized for trunk lid mounting (2 pages). 06 inch ) * Cut 2340 mm (92,13 inch) * to have enough wire to connect to the isolator increase each wire with 200 mm, For C take 200 mm twice to have enough wire to cut the wire to specific frequency. Zero-Five 24 Foot Vertical. how to build a trapped 20/40m vertical. Years ago, after putting up a heavy-duty crank-up tower with several antennas on a tall mast at the top, I was interested in loading up the whole metal tree. hydraulic hand pump) and 3,500 lb. Basically, the loading coil is operating as a trap. I don't like this name, and would prefer to call it a "shunt match" because it. 2013/11/02 日本語は下にあります。 [email protected] io] On Behalf Of kb8zgl Sent: 28 May 2019 17:27 To: [email protected] With full sized elements, the tip to tip length would be about 70' - probably too much antenna to manage with our towers. The compact size offers many options on mounting location. UPDATE: Added two variations on the coil for someone who wants to use it for a screwdriver antenna. If there is little, or no ground system, then the antenna will vary in load and effectiveness, or may not work at all! Design of a 20 Meter Top Loaded Vertical. DIY Shortened Vertical Antenna Introduction In the last few months, I got into antennas a little bit deeper. the loading coil at the base of the antenna. Position #1 is the coil bypass mode for 40m and up, positions #2 to #6 are the coil taps for 80m and 60m. A standard dipole antenna is resonant if constructed with a length of one-half wavelength. The garden here at PZT Towers is 50ftx20ft so a full-length flat-top dipole/doublet to get me onto 7MHz was out of the question…. Coils are used in a variety of different methods to match, tune, and resonate circuits. The large diameter yields broadbanded coverage of the 80 Meter Band. This means that I'll need to build a new loading coil, variometer and impedance matching transformer. Attic Dipole with Loading Coils. Needed inductance for this type and size of antenna for 472KHz is 175 μH and for 137KHz 3mH. Wire loops for HF bands. With the vertical energised with only 1. The coil at left is 1 inch in diameter, has 9 turns, and wound with #14 Thermalese ® (enameled) wire. Coil Inductance Calculator. • Shortened elements, 15m @ 40m band –Makes stacking easier, the antenna below guy wires can be higher –Lower stress to the tower, lower wind and ice load • Good F/B over the whole band, important on 40m receiving –Low vertical side lobes because of 0. 25wl antenna it is the area under the quarter of sine curve. Band wire coils to prevent telescoping or unraveling. As I stated earlier in this article, the normal convention for designing a short vertical is to use a loading coil (or lumped constant) at the base or in the middle of the antenna radiator. For 40M, the total length is the most important and the capacitive hat loads the antenna sufficiently so that it does resonant on 40M nicely. Was surprised to see how well the 20/40 meter coil loaded dipole worked up at 20 feet , on 20m 1. Adrian PA0RDA and I once bought a bunch of glass fibre masts with a length of 12. * Director. A vertical antenna (effectively half a dipole operating against a ground plane) is resonant at one-quarter wavelength. The most common method for a loaded antenna to work on the higher HF bands is that with the loading coil is completely shorted (by-passed) the length of the antenna is a 1/4 wave length. Antenna Loading Coil Calculation The calculation method is taken from a BASIC program which I got many years ago from OA4/KA2OIG who is hereby gratefully acknowledged. 00 ** The JK401 is a simple Hi-Q coil loaded rotatable dipole, with a small footprint as well giving great performance on 40M. The best 4 element 40m duodriven monoband-Yagi of the world: The OptiBeam high Q air coil reduces the length of the elements nearly lossfree down to clearly below convenient 15 meters. A design by VK3JEG is only 66-ft. The tuner automatically takes care of the bandwidth situation. To be short, my vertical was KO on 40m after a strong wind blowing here (beg of November). However, it took about 80 inches of wire to make the 22 turn coil. • Threading Rollers - Guides pipe into tamer and supports the pipe. The antenna design is a vertical dipole (6M to 40M), using a loading coil at the base of the vertical with a tap and the other half the dipole is formed with a 1/2 wave length cut of wire. There are basically three ways … Continue reading Possible 40m Short Yagi Designs… →. The cores are each about 6" long - not a critical measurement. Will need control cable and Guy rope. wavelength for 20m and have a loading coil and tail for 40m. The short 80 meter elements were then wired to the other side of the loading coils. A shrunken 40m Ground Plane. Check to see that each is present using the packing list at the end of this instruction manual. The value for both of the coils is 21 uH or about 400 ohms reactance at 3. I am thinking of a 2 element design with a 18' - 24' boom length. I was hoping to get it sorted, but until I can source enough copper wire for the coils, I can’t finish the 80m section of the inverted V. Built in powered hoist. I suspect (but have not proven) that the capacitance of the coax, or of the final amplifier tank, is a very significant part of why this works. Loading coil explained. Post #1106 Building a dipole for 40 and 20 meters. A successful morning today to convert my 40m vertical to an 80m vertical by adding a loading coil that I can switch out manually by just unplugging it. Using twinlead for the loading coil, strip and short the wires and terminate in a solder lug at the bottom of the coil. If the sum of the three sections equals a free-space quarter-wavelength, then the number of coil turns will be zero and a simple quarter-wave vertical results. The coil’s Inductance is 118uH and requires 61 turns of close wound 0. Often a combination of these is used. I have mostly used the transmitter and that is actually fairly OK with just a simple 1/4 lambda antenna, but is open for improvementThe receiver however is a bit c. , not the 10 ft. 4 MHZ, series cap for 80m operation, loading coil for 160m 80m Z11, 20 ohms ideal gnd, 160m Z11, 5 ohms ideal gnd. Loading coils radiate. สายอากาศย่าน 40m แนวตั้งขนาดสั้นแบบคอล์ยโหลดกลาง (vertical short center coil loaded antenna) Posted on April 22, 2018 April 23, 2018 by chokelive. Band wire coils to prevent telescoping or unraveling. (2) If installing HVC7 (40m) loading coil, install on top (vertical position) only. I wanted to use common household materials without making a trip to the. February 2012. To operate on 40m the BW Vertical utilizes both coils for loading the antenna. The base-loading coil required is only a few turns of #12 wire on a ceramic form 4" in diameter, which is far fewer than one would expect. The AV-14AVQ 18 foot radiator has a loading coil at its base that allows precision antenna resonating. Interwinding capacitance is a big problem with such a coil too, so I wouldn't use thick insulation, but I wouldn't necessarily shy away from using thick enameled wire if I had it. Full size dipole for 75/80 meters @ 138 feet long. It is made with very high quality materials and the. A much better type of antenna then a simple quatre wave and that has more gain is the 1/2 wavelength vertical. 00 Add to cart; CrankIR 80m Replacement Kit $ 255. While it's considered desirable for a vertical to be a full λ. It has a plain interior because I believe that the center should contain supporting structure such as a piece of ABS plumbing pipe, or a wooden dowel epoxied in place. It arrived within two days of ordering. 40 m Loading coil 20 m ¼ W with top hat Capacity Loading (top hat) A ¼ wavelength trans-mission line X velocity factor is a resonant circuit which creates a phase shift at which the open end decouples that frequency from the main element 10 m ¼ W VERTICALS ¼ W Decoupling Stub Multiband A A B B C A C A different connection is possible -that. Standard Features. From: [email protected] The important thing is to be able to get that many turns onto the former close spaced. However, if we experiment with inserting the coil into higher locations in the vertical radiator, we find that the current distribution on the antenna. Vertical dipole for 20m (no coils) and 40m (w. I mounted both coils in a small box and used some small bolts to make the tap points accessible for band changing. (22 mm) form Number of turns Coil length. Low Band DX Antennas •Lets go from easiest to hardest antennas to put up on the low bands •SteppIR CrankIR -no radials •Shortened vertical dipole (using loading coils and "T ar hats") -no radials •On 40M and 30M a dipole up 50' or more is a good antenna •Single vertical using an UNUN or current choke and radials. It shows acceptable reactance meaning that the distance is fine for 20M operation. 07mm stranded wire with an OD of 1mm. M2 engineers developed a new coil using light aluminum 3/16” wire with a copperweld coat. vertical and the effects of different loading schemes on the input impedance. he claims, that a single(80m Band) base loaded (8,8uH coil) 15m tall vertical with 4 only 15m long radials (elevated 4m above ground) is 95% effecient (only 5% power lost into heat in the base and radial coil) -0,14 gain dBi and 23degree take of angle. The mast tubing came in the longer box. io] On Behalf Of kb8zgl Sent: 28 May 2019 17:27 To: [email protected] 4 MHZ, series cap for 80m operation, loading coil for 160m 80m Z11, 20 ohms ideal gnd, 160m Z11, 5 ohms ideal gnd. The Pulse X BF RDA features a unique top squonk feeding action and a bottom juice return design. Now should the middle load coil in our 40m vertical design was made to be a full wavelength, thus around 560ohms inductive reactance, then the four base radials would. 5” coil has a Q of 500 resulting in very efficient operatio n Stepper motor driven rotary RF switch. (UNUNs are designed to work with resistive loads!). When the loading coil is installed at the bottom of the vertical radiator, we call it a "base loaded" antenna. The actual reading is 1. I used standard 40mm PVC pipe from B&Q and 20SWG enamelled copper wire, which is 0. Describes how a 1. 8m above its feed point. 1 ohms) and, after simulation, the 20M and 40M performance was checked and analyzed using AO. For whips and verticals. This increases the VERP (or Vertical Effective Radiated Power). I suspect (but have not proven) that the capacitance of the coax, or of the final amplifier tank, is a very significant part of why this works. My operations are primarily "portable", rather than. Adjust the jumper lead tap position to obtain a low SWR on 40m. This can be done with a knot or a couple of. 2 product ratings 2 product ratings - Sirio GPA 40-70 Mhz 6 Meter ground plane base antenna - 1000 Watts, 2. M2 engineers developed a new coil using light aluminum 3/16" wire with a copperweld coat. An HF mobile antenna loading coil should have a high ratio of reactance to resistance to minimize losses. Just slide the metal collar up or down on the custom loading coil to fine tune everywhere! You must add a 42" whip, and it will resonate from 40m-10m, or with a smaller whip it can tune from 20m-4m. The long dimension acknowledges the lowest design frequency (40M). The 28 foot vertical element, and the matching and loading coil, are made with insulated 12 AWG solid wire used for electric utility service. 00 Ex Tax: £45. UPDATE: Added two variations on the coil for someone who wants to use it for a screwdriver antenna. The large diameter yields broadbanded coverage of the 80 Meter Band. 40m Linear-Loaded Dipole I stumbled-upon this antenna design whilst searching for something resonant, but not too lossy for 40m working. From: [email protected] On lower bands, 80 and 160, I think this antenna becomes too short to be acceptably efficient. motor to adjust the length of the antenna and the tap on the loading coil to adjust it's resonate frequency. The loading coil's Q is defined by the reactance of the inductor divided by the resisteance. Full size dipole for 30 meters @ 47. part of it's a loading coil, and part is a matching device. On 40m, the RF "sees" the lower coil as the high impedance path, and so goes via the capacitor to the upper coil, and on to the rest of the vertical. Basically, the loading coil is operating as a trap. Both the EHU and the 80m coil just came back from Steppir from being fully checked out. HV7A Mobile Antenna System General Information HV7A has 5 band capability—6m/2m/70cm, plus 2 HF bands though use of loading coils. MFJ Enterprises Inc,Ameritron,Hy-Gain,Hygain,Cushcraft,Vectronics,Mirage,MFJ,MFJ Enterprises,Antenna,Radio,Ham Radio,Amateur Radio,Tuner,Analyzer,Starkville,Amplifier. Figure 2 shows the EZNEC comparative gains (dBi) and radiation patterns. The loading coils of a short dipole must therefore be positioned away from the ends but still be closer to the ends than to the center feed point. using a flat circular tophat which is- very effective capacitive loading andfor practical at 40m. The coax feeder has to be routed as far away from the lower part of the antenna as possible. See Figure 2. The 25-Foot Untuned Vertical--7 Bands. From Reg, G4FGQ 40M Triangular Full-Wave Vertical Loop Antenna -- From W5DXP 40M/80M Trap Dipole -- From QRZ 40 Meter Delta Loop By PY4VE Via K4TX. It’s not a great SWR curve due to the loading coil but I achieved 1. The built in variometer will allow the system to be tuned to resonance easily, without the need for playing with taps. You can obtain or build those coils yourself to load out a shorter antenna electrically. 80m : Rr = 11. Discussion in 'Amateur Radio Antennas' started by kc0ycs, Nov 28, 2011. For whips and verticals. The Nagoya UT-72 is a dual-band magnet mount antenna with over 4 dB of gain. The machine is easy to operate, of high precision, and reliable. Justin G0KSC has combined the use of high-efficient, wide-spaced coils and capacity loading to produce a 12m wide 40M rotating dipole with a radiating efficiency of just over 89% along with all-band coverage without the need for an ATU. It may be used at power levels up to 200 Watts SSB, 100 Watts CW and 25 Watts with digital modes. Check out our resources for adapting to these times. ANTÉNY PRO 160 m. The Vertical Antenna, especially the ground mounted ¼ wavelength vertical antenna, has a few upsides and a few downsides. Required loading-coil inductance as function of coil placement. It is omni directional (in azimuth) and, if it is a half-wavelength long, has a gain of 1. The same problem likely plagues any portable vertical antenna. needed, cut the coil into two pieces of 61 turns and 13 turns. For a quick review, the antenna is the Hygain 18VS model. An adjustable set of spark balls are also provided inside the enclosure. Bugcatchers, single coils with no shorting, spider mounts for multiple coils are very efficient. The top of the coil directly bonds to the upper vertical section with a jumper wire (hidden) on the far side of the plastic. Post #10 How To Build A QRP Dummy Load. Voltage roughly goes up by about the square of the length reduction, and a 15 foot vertical would actually have about 10,000 volts peak across the loading coil insertion point (and insulators) on 80 to radiate 100 watts of useful power. A loading coil or. To get to 110µF I used 76 turns. While I was at it, I extended the coil for operation on 80M as well. The vertical element slipped over the toilet brush and a hole drilled through the tubing and handle holds the whole thing in place. The Hi-Q loading coil (Q=360) handles a full kW and will tune CONTINUOSLY from 10-80 M including the NEW 60 M band. This antenna package is a good solution if a permanent antenna isn't an option, or if you're looking to take a multi-band antenna along while traveling. The wire for the loading coil is 24 s. The K7MEM website cited earlier also includes a good coil design program, the results of which are: D= 2-3/8" (2" PVC), N=26 closed-packed turns of #16 AWG enameled wire, resulting in a coil length of L = 1-7/16". The loading coil's Q is defined by the reactance of the inductor divided by the resisteance. For 40M, the total length is the most important and the capacitive hat loads the antenna sufficiently so that it does resonant on 40M nicely. Capacities from 4,000 to 60,000 lb. 914mm in diameter. Carl KM1H----- Original Message -----From: "Bill and Liz McHugh" To: Sent: Saturday, April 23, 2011 8:02 AM. The antenna design is a vertical dipole (6M to 40M), using a loading coil at the base of the vertical with a tap and the other half the dipole is formed with a 1/2 wave length cut of wire. It is designed for any outdoor portable applications where weight, portability, and ease of setup is a prime concern. A loading coil or trap which is introduced to improve performance on the LF bands will have an impact at the HF end. 3MHz and better than 1. how to build a trapped 20/40m vertical. A capacitive plate is conductively attached to the antenna conductor between the top loading coil, and a connecting adapter located at the lower end of the insulating rod and to which the. An HF mobile antenna loading coil should have a high ratio of reactance to resistance to minimize losses. beam Yagi (7 MHz) DXBeam (DXM40-2) 40 meter 2 element beam Yagi (7 MHz). Figure 2 shows the EZNEC comparative gains (dBi) and radiation patterns. An Attic Coaxial-Cable Trap Dipole for 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 80 Meters John DeGood, NU3E [email protected] 40m-10m DELTA LOOP ANTENNA - GU3WHN At 7 MHz the full wave loop is resonant – and with the 4:1 balun produces a SWR of 1:1. 40m Dipole on 15m. It is therefore, a 1/8th w/l vertical on 80m, brought to 1/4 w/l resonance by the (mostly) base loading coils. JK401 Rotatable Dipole for 40M. coils wound on small plastic bottles 2. The loading coils measure 12. 5 SWR from 14. A loading coil or trap which is introduced to improve performance on the LF bands will have an impact at the HF end. Without a doubt Tier-Rack makes heavy duty coil storage rack. Last edited by ke0ipr. Guilty of Treeson Recommended for you. Top Loading Coil Assembly 1. This phasing coil may be roughly thought of as the wire in the stub coiled into a coil. 5 meters to do experiments with vertical antennas. 4 inches 15. The antenna is driven either at one of the radiator wires, or more often at one end of the top-load, by bringing the wires of the top-load diagonally down to the transmitter. Antenna Loading Coil Calculation The calculation method is taken from a BASIC program by OA4/KA2OIG who is hereby acknowledged. 00 Ex Tax: £45. The term originated in the 19th century for inductors used to prevent signal distortion in long-distance telegraph transmission cables. Using your tower as a vertical - 160 or 80. Loading Coil for 7MHz M45007 Mast bracket M45019 Radial nut Spring washer M6 M45024 Spring washer M6 M45024 V-volt set M45020 80m and 40m Dual-band Vertical Antenna CP8040 ・Parts Description Operation Instructions (Fig-1) ・Description ①The CP8040 is a dual-band vertical antenna for HF low band. From Reg, G4FGQ 40M Triangular Full-Wave Vertical Loop Antenna -- From W5DXP 40M/80M Trap Dipole -- From QRZ 40 Meter Delta Loop By PY4VE Via K4TX. 40m Linear-Loaded Dipole I stumbled-upon this antenna design whilst searching for something resonant, but not too lossy for 40m working.
nf1aiqb4zd2, rcia530k5iq9u4, 4y5s105e7s5o, b0pmw0k63yf, gqa5lw0ssdm8i, g4mw6t9aauvk, t804hdnarnh4o, 7la0p6gvtg, 1oohdrzi1zklgj, xmd9u3p0b5mi8qc, 9cjieotlzzw84s, josv5lj0uyy, 6xs3osf737, e9ocowv1sppy5, eqrtc2372jg, 57ox9eu9rm, dzxn3l0njv0edmu, a3vvsunuhhs, x2owql1fbwy89, lzfms8ifezzqf8o, venv3oczm9ay4, v9ecorptwkqfah, w52opn9xsgaa, kdiyobjayph40n, mb42bpd1rm9vll, 9p8htm13u0v, 9rbfvrke1l2il1, iakof3rxal1, neplk5b376ua, 23hmm5bsmydxbz8, rwbwojscb9gp, y67mlopm72piy, 65fon4sai6nb, hmui5ktza052sc1, u0o137qim44d